Kratom is long known for its psychoactive potential in the United States. It has been found associated with complex pharmacology among the Kratom community due to its self-treating potential for opioid addictions or to thwart pain. Where you would be finding multiple researches highlighting the potential outcomes, you might also come across some controversies associated with its high potency. All the essence lies in the alkaloid composition of Kratom. This article will be unveiling some major alkaloids that make up the mass of Ketum Superior Kratom.
Rooting back, Kratom is basically native to Southeast Asian lands where you could find its medicinal evidence interwoven in Thai and Malaysian cultures. The earliest reports support its use for opium-cessation, sedation and stimulating purposes. All its effects could only be well understood after finding the mixture of alkaloids present in it and their respective binding affinities with neurological receptors.
According to research, Kratom is made up of 54 different alkaloids among which Mitragynine is the most researched alkaloid so far. You can find enough research highlighting the associated benefits and side effects of Mitragynine. Mitragynine was first isolated by Ellen Field where after decades further manuscripts illustrated the structural elucidation and absolute configuration of Mitragynine by Becket and Zacharias.
List of 7 Alkaloids in Kratom
5. Indole Alkaloid paynantheine
6. Corynoxine B
It is a corynanthe-type monoterpene indole alkaloid that makes most of the alkaloid composition of Mitragyna speciosa. Mitragynine is considered one effective potent µ-opioid agonist. The anti-nociceptive effects associated with Kratom leaves are due to this alkaloid. This effect is mediated by effecting supraspinal µ (MOR) and δ (DOR) or κ (KOR) opioid receptors. One of their most important qualities is how they don’t activate the β-arrestin pathway, which is responsible for some of the most dangerous side effects of traditional opioids like respiratory depression and sedation
This alkaloid is associated with therapeutic pain relieving potential. In addition to this, this chemical has also less harmful effects than morphine and opioid as it shows mild withdrawal effects. You can find enough preclinical and clinical studies proving the analgesic effect of Mitragynine. In addition to this, it has also been associated with cardio toxicity as it inhibits human ether-a-go-go-related gene current.
The Mitragynine concentration in Kratom varies with geographical and climate conditions. Its Malaysian variants are found to have 12% of it while Thailand-based variants contain 66% of Mitragynine content in it.
This active metabolite and oxidative form of mitragynine is responsible for the same analgesic effect as most of other alkaloid renders. Mitragynine is converted to its mu-opioid receptor agonist that is facilitated by cytochrome P450 3A isoforms.
This alkaloid reportedly has strength 46x that of mitragynine and 13 times that of morphine.
Speciogynine is actually a diastereoisomer of Mitragynine. It is a naturally occurring alkaloid that constitutes 6-8% of alkaloid makeup in Kratom. It is commonly believed that strains which are rich with Mitragynine are also rich with speciogynine. But white vein and green gain is considered the richest source of speciogynine.
It is a comparatively weak antagonist for Opioid receptors. It is also found responsible for sedative and stimulant properties associated with Kratom powders. Especially the red vein doses if taken in high potency can result in relaxing and muscle relieving effects. There are not enough side effects linked to this alkaloid but the rising controversies linked to Kratom add enough ill repute.
As per research, Corynoxine B is an isomer Corynoxine. Corynoxine B is a µ-opioid receptor antagonist which renders analgesic effect to Kratom. It has been found that Corynoxine protects brain dopaminergic neurons by turning down neuro-inflammatory response. This alkaloid also stimulates autophagy by working as a Beclin-1-dependent autophagy inducer which helps to treat various chronic ailments.
It helps to restore the HMGB1 deficit cytosolic translocation. Red Bali constitutes 5 isomers of Corynoxine B and hydrogenated corynanthine.
Indole Alkaloid Paynantheine
It is another alkaline derivative of Mitragynine. It exists in two isomeric forms:
· Epiallo- Isopaynantheine
This indole-kratom alkaloid showed greater binding affinity at hMOR and hKOR opioid receptors. Indole Alkaloid paynantheine renders positive impacts on serotonin (5-HT) receptors that help to regulate physiological effects which include mood, body temperature and sexual behaviours. This makes Kratom as one of the potent mood enhancers.
Red vein Kratom strain is assumed to contain paynantheine as it is found to be less common than mitragynine and hydroxymitragynine. The anxiolytic potential of red vein strain of Kratom is found to be due to this alkaloid present in it.
It is believed to be the second most abundant alkaloid present in Kratom plants. It makes up 8.6% of total alkaloid makeup. It is used as a biomarker to trace the presence of Kratom in any product.
Just like speciogynine, it is another potent diastereoisomer of mitragynine. It is a partial µ-opioid agonist that renders the same analgesic effect despite being considered a secondary alkaloid.
It is so far the least researched alkaloid among the other 54 alkaloids that makes up the Kratom so effective. It has been found inhibiting the morphine-induced twitching contraction which makes it appear as an effective µ-opioid agonist.
Due to its low concentration, it is very difficult to extract corynantheidine from Kratom. As per the scientist, though it is found in very less amount however, red strain contains the highest concentration overall.
It is mostly known for its euphoric properties which are due to its affinity for 5HT2A receptors. In addition to this, it also helps to get a sound sleep by working on ɑ1 and ɑ2 adrenergic receptors. By inhibiting these receptors it promotes sleep. On other hand, activating these receptors makes a person feel more active and focused.
Don’t confuse corynantheidine as an opiate. However it does treat opioid withdrawal symptoms.
As far as the safety of all these alkaloids is concerned, one should be taking the prescribed doses to avoid the potential side effects of high doses.