Pituitary tumors are a group of malignant (cancer) diseases that affect the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain and produces hormones to regulate growth and development, reproduction, and metabolism. Pituitary tumors can cause many symptoms, including fatigue, decreased concentration, loss of appetite, weight loss, hair loss, and vision changes. Jackson neurosurgery clinic offers effective treatment options for patients with Pituitary tumors.
Pituitary tumors include a wide range of different types. Some pituitary tumors are benign, while others are malignant. Each type of tumor has its own set of symptoms and treatment options. The most common types include:
The most common type of pituitary tumor is an adenoma. These tumors develop in normal cells within the pituitary gland and can cause decreased production of certain hormones. These tumors are not cancerous and do not spread beyond the pituitary gland. They may require removal if they grow too large or cause symptoms like headaches or vomiting.
Prolactinoma is a more aggressive form of adenoma that often spreads through the surrounding walls (metastasizes). Prolactinomas cause watery eye syndrome because they press on pituitary cells that produce prolactin, a female hormone that helps make milk for nursing babies. Prolactinomas can also cause severe headaches or visual disturbances if they grow large enough to compress nerves in your eyes or head (neurofibroma).
These tumors develop in the head part of the pituitary gland and can cause decreased production of certain hormones. These tumors are not cancerous and do not spread beyond the pituitary gland. They may require removal if they grow too large or cause symptoms like headaches or vomiting.
Cancerous tumors that form in the head part of the pituitary gland can cause decreased production of certain hormones. These tumors are rare and usually occur in older adults with several other types of cancer.
These tumors begin as cancer cells in the germinal cells (the immature cells that give rise to neurons) in the outer layer of the pituitary gland. Germinomas account for about 10% to 15% of all pituitary tumors and occur most commonly in people older than 60. They usually develop over time and may not cause signs or symptoms until they have grown large enough to press against nearby structures such as blood vessels or nerves.
Pituitary polyendocrine neoplasms
Pituitary polyendocrine neoplasms (PPN) include tumors that arise from the pituitary gland or nearby tissue. There are several subtypes of PPN, depending on where the tumor originates. PPN typically grows slowly and can cause symptoms such as headaches and vision problems if left untreated. These tumors may also be linked to specific hormone deficiencies caused by long-term effects from radiation therapy used to treat other cancers or injuries elsewhere in the body (e.g., head or neck).
There are several signs and symptoms of pituitary tumors. These include headaches or migraines, weight loss without trying to diet, nausea or vomiting, sickle cell anemia (low red blood cells), and dizziness, especially when turning in bed at night. Other symptoms may include difficulty eating, diarrhea, constipation, or change in bowel habits. See a doctor immediately if you are experiencing all or any of these symptoms. Visit your doctor for a consultation with a doctor to learn more about pituitary tumors.